Tag Archives: Genome

Duck Genome Provides New Insight into Fighting Bird Flu

The Poultry Site – The duck genome consortium, consisted of scientists from China Agricultural University, BGI, University of Edinburgh and other institutes has completed the genome sequencing and analysis of the duck (Anas platyrhynchos), one principal natural host of influenza A viruses, which caused a new epidemic in China since this February.

This work reveals some noteworthy conclusions and provides an invaluable resource for unraveling the interactive mechanisms between the host and influenza viruses.

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DNA ruling may drop gene mutation test’s cost, increase access

21By Marilynn Marchione

MeSN News – A ruling by the Supreme Court that human genes can’t be patented is expected to increase access and drop the cost for tests for gene mutations that greatly raise the risk of developing breast or ovarian cancer.

In a bit of a mixed message, the court unanimously decided that certain types of gene tests may still be protected by patents, yet it struck down patents that a company has long held for BRCA genes. The company makes the only test for two of those breast cancer genes.

“It appears that it will allow the market to open up so that other laboratories can offer the test,” said Rebecca Nagy, a genetics counselor at Ohio State University and president of the National Society of Genetic Counselors. And that should make the tests cheaper and available to more women, she said… >>Continue Reading<<

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Embrapa and RDA define strategic partnership in projects for agriculture

00001Labex Korea (Embrapa) and the International Technology Cooperation Center (ITCC/RDA) organized the 3rd Workshop RDA/Embrapa in Suwon on March 25 – 29. This event was proposed with the objective to establish strategies for cooperation between both Institutions to toward technological innovations through research, development and technology transfer, which enable to boost the agricultural sector in both countries.

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Taking a Slice at the Wheat Genome

By Elizabeth Pennisi

Science – Considered by some to be the Mount Everest of crop genomes, the challenging wheat genome is close to being scaled. An international team has produced a draft of wheat’s DNA sequence, one that identifies many of its genes and has made possible the identification of thousands of potential genetic changes that could improve this key crop.”A tremendous resource for wheat improvement and plant genetics has been developed,” says Jeffrey Bennetzen, a plant geneticist at the University of Georgia, Athens, who was not involved with the work………. << Access the complete article<<

Source and Photo: Science, November 28th, 2012
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The banana (Musa acuminata) genome and the evolution of monocotyledonous plants

Angélique D’Hont et al.
Nature – Bananas (Musa spp.), including dessert and cooking types, are giant perennial monocotyledonous herbs of the order Zingiberales, a sister group to the well-studied Poales, which include cereals. Bananas are vital for food security in many tropical and subtropical countries and the most popular fruit in industrialized countries. The Musa domestication process started some 7,000 years ago in Southeast Asia. It involved hybridizations between diverse species and subspecies, fostered by human migrations2, and selection of diploid and triploid seedless, parthenocarpic hybrids thereafter widely dispersed by vegetative propagation. Half of the current production relies on somaclones derived from a single triploid genotype (Cavendish)… >>Keep reading<<
 
Source and Photo: Nature, May 18th, 2012
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Decoding the Tomato Genome

An international joint research project of 300 researchers from 14 nations, including Korea, has decoded the tomato’s genome sequence. In Korea, Dr. Cheol-Goo Hur of the Korea Research Institute of Bioscience & Biotechnology (KRIBB) and Dr. Doil Choi of the Seoul National University participated in the research supported by 21st Century Frontier Crops’ Genome Function Research Project of the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology. The tomato, a member of the solanaceae family which includes eggplant, hot pepper and potato, is a model research plant and a valuable vegetable crop with an annual global trade worth ten trillion KRW. The Solanaceae taxon has evolved widely over time and is now represented by over 3,000 species around the world.

In order to analyze of the genome sequence of the tomato, researchers established an international consortium, allotting 12 genomes among member nations. The Korea team received the 2nd genome. Initially, a first generation base sequence analyzing method, which was utilized in analyzing the human genome, was adopted. Then a next generation gene sequencer (NGS) was used to analyze it. The tomato genome sequence, consisting of 900 million base pairs of DNA, encompasses a wide scope of data including 35,000 genes of tomato genome, arrangements and compositions of genes, and gene structure.

It is expected that this gene data can be used to promote the development of breeding technologies to improve quality and yields. This gene data can reduce by more than half breeding cycles and costs and play a key role in the understanding of biosynthetic pathways and speciation research of secondary metabolites such as vitamin A, vitamin C and capsaicin (a hot-tasting component). Also, if this data can be introduced to other members of the solanaceae family, including hot peppers and potatoes, various new agricultural products may soon be seen on the table.

The research result was posted on May 31, 2012, in ‘Nature’, the world’s foremost journal of bioscience. The genome sequence can be found online

Source and Photo: Korean Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology
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The banana genome has been sequenced

Banana has revealed the secrets of its 520 million bases. Two French research organizations, CIRAD and CEA-Genoscope, with funding from the National Research Agency (ANR), have just finished, in two years, sequencing the species Musa acuminata which is a component in every edible variety (dessert and cooking bananas). This work is a huge step towards understanding the genetics of and improving banana varieties, and was done within the framework of the Global Musa Genomics Consortium… >>Read More<<

Source and Photo: African Seed Network
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