Brazilian Agriculture

AG_BrasilBy Gilberto Schmidt

Labex Korea – Brazil is one of the largest countries in the world, with an extensive surface of continuous land, a large supply of fresh water, abundant solar energy, and a rich biodiversity. In the past five decades the country has used its abundance and diversity of resources to successfully become a world leader in agricultural production, including food, feed, fiber and renewable energy.

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GLOBAL POULTRY TRENDS 2013 – Asia Produces One-third of World’s Broilers

39The Poultry Site – Global growth in chicken meat production is slowing down but Asia maintains its share of the total, according to long-time industry watcher, Terry Evans, in the new series of ‘Global Poultry Trends’ for ThePoultrySite in 2013.

Global poultry meat output is expected to amount to 106.4 million tonnes in 2013, according to a forecast made by the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO). Growth has slowed annually since 2010 from around 4.5 per cent to 1.8 per cent this year. Chicken meat output accounts for some 88 per cent of world poultry meat production… >> Continue Reading<<

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Mathematical Modelling of the Dynamics and Control of Salmonella

The Pig Site – Key findings are outlined from a research project carried out at the University of Liverpool which was funded by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council and BPEX, as part of a Collaborative Award in Science and Engineering (CASE) studentship.
The aim of the research was to develop mathematical models to understand the dynamics of Salmonella transmission on finishing pig farms in the UK and assess whether farm structure has any effect on this. The aim was to use these models to investigate where control strategies should be aimed.
Two key forms of unit structure (fully slatted and solid floor) were analysed and three models describing Salmonella transmission were developed:
  • Single room, fully-slatted floor
  • Multiple rooms, fully-slatted floor
  • Single room, solid floor
The models identified some key results with regard to on-farm Salmonella dynamics.
A principal finding showed that there is not a single action that can solve the problem but rather, a number of aspects should be targeted… Continue Reading
 
 Source and Photo: The Pig Site, November 28, 2013
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Chimeric Embryos May Soon Get Their Day in the Sun

F2_smallBy Dennis Normile

Science – Last week, a Japanese ethics panel decided that they are, recommending that the government lift a ban on certain experiments that mix human cells with those of other animals. But the scientist who is pioneering this research area and who pushed for an end to the ban, stem cell biologist Hiromitsu Nakauchi of the University of Tokyo, is planning to set up a lab in California, bringing the debate—and the possible benefits—to the United States.

Nakauchi has been pursuing the idea of implanting human pluripotent stem cells into pig embryos genetically engineered to be incapable of developing their own pancreases. These cells could be either embryonic stem cells or, preferably, induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. iPS cells derived from a patient’s own skin or other tissue should avoid immune rejection, because the generated organ would genetically match the recipient. If all goes to plan, the stem cells would develop into human pancreases in the pig fetus. (Mouse experiments have shown that pluripotent cells can fill the developmental niche opened by the absence of an organ.) After the piglet’s birth, the pancreas would be harvested and islet cells isolated for transplantation into human type 1 diabetes patients, whose islets either no longer produce insulin or produce too little of the sugar-regulating hormone …. >>Contine Reading<<.

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South Korea Aims to Double Farm Exports by 2017

Italo_Busan_01South Korea – South Korea will work to double its outbound shipments of farm and fisheries products to US$16 billion in just five years, according to the agriculture ministry.
 
Under its plan revealed at a government meeting chaired by President Park Geun-hye, the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs said it will invest nearly two trillion won (KRW; US$1.86 billion) by 2017 to develop new products and farming technologies, reports YonhapNewsAgency.
“The government plans to invest up to 2 trillion won by 2017, with most of the amount to be spent on research and development projects to develop country-specific products,” said Lim Jeong-bin, head of the ministry’s food industry policy bureau.
South Korea’s farm exports have been growing steadily with an average annual increase of 16 per cent over the past five years, according to the ministry.
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Chickens Do Not Receive Growth Hormones: So Why All the Confusion?

39The Poultry Site – Naturally occurring hormones, such as oestrogen, progesterone and testosterone, are essential for various physiological processes in humans and animals. Throughout history, these naturally occurring hormones have been making their way into the environment, posing the risk of contamination.
The World Health Organization (WHO) has identified certain environmental contaminants as a global concern. These contaminants are capable of harming reproduction and development by altering endocrine functions in humans and wildlife. As the human population grows and livestock production becomes more concentrated, the quantity and concentration of hormones within local areas increases.

As a result, many of us in the poultry field hear the same question with increasing frequency: “Why do you put hormones in the feed to make chickens grow so big and fast?” The fact that the question begins with “why” instead of “do” indicates the level of confusion and misunderstanding of the consuming public. The truth is no hormones have been allowed in poultry production for more than 50 years. Hormone use in poultry production was banned in the United States in the 1950s… >>Continue Reading<<

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Livestock Resources and Environmental Issues in Asia

ConsumersThe Poultry SiteLivestock production is a significant and growing source of nitrogen and phosphorus pollution, range degradation and greenhouse gases, according to Benjamin Henderson (Livestock Policy Officer) and Henning Steinfeld (Chief of Livestock Information and Policy Branch), both with the FAO in Rome. They also identify possible solutions to these problems… >>Continue Reading<<

Source: The Poultry Site, 2013

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Microalgae Utilisation in Wastewater Treatment

The Poultry Site – Since the inception of the Clean Water Act and subsequent creation of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the early 1970s, industrial, institutional and commercial entities have been required to continually improve the quality of their process wastewater effluent discharges. At the same time, the rise in population and production rates has increased water use, creating a corresponding rise in wastewater quantity.

This increased water use and process wastewater generation requires more efficient removal of by-products and pollutants that allows for effluent discharge within established environmental regulatory limits.

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A Better Berry, Thanks to Bees

PollenizationScience – The next time you bite into a bright red, perfectly shaped strawberry, give a shout-out to the bees. A new study shows that pollination by the insects increases the quality and shelf life of strawberries, saving hundreds of millions of dollars in the process. Bees could be providing the same benefits for a variety of other fruits and vegetables as well.

It’s well known that pollination increases the yield of most crops. Seeds, nuts, fruit, and grain can be larger and more plentiful when insects or other animals transfer pollen between plants, in contrast to when plants pollinate themselves, a process called selfing. But quality turns out to be important, too. Teja Tscharntke, an agroecologist at the University of Göttingen in Germany, got the idea to study quality about a decade ago, while he was investigating pollination of coffee plants in Indonesia. He and his student Alexandra Klein noticed that not only was coffee yield higher with more bee species, but malformations such as unevenly shaped beans were also reduced.

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Trees Can Improve Environment, Yields and Welfare

TreesBy Chris Harris

The Pig Site – In the UK alone, 2.2 million tonnes of top soil are eroded from farmland fields each year, largely by surface water run-off and changes in cropping patters.

And according to Mike Townsend, the senior analysts at the Woodland Trust in the UK this produced a reduction in nutrients in the soil and a loss to agriculture as well as damaging the waterways and the wildlife in them.

“As well as a cost to agriculture, it is a cost to society in general,” Mr Townsend told a seminar at the recent Farm Business Innovations 2013 in London.

However, he said that shelter belts of trees can help to trap nutrients such as phosphorus and act as a nutrient sink as well as ensuring that the water stays on the farm… Continue Reading

Source and Photo: The Pig Site, December 5, 2013
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