Category Archives: Environment

Microalgae Utilisation in Wastewater Treatment

The Poultry Site – Since the inception of the Clean Water Act and subsequent creation of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the early 1970s, industrial, institutional and commercial entities have been required to continually improve the quality of their process wastewater effluent discharges. At the same time, the rise in population and production rates has increased water use, creating a corresponding rise in wastewater quantity.

This increased water use and process wastewater generation requires more efficient removal of by-products and pollutants that allows for effluent discharge within established environmental regulatory limits.

Continue reading

The success of sugarcane is the fruit of pioneering science and technology, study concludes

canaBy Elton Alisson

Agência FAPESP – Brazil is recognized as the country with the world’s most efficient biofuel production, which is principally based on sugarcane. The success that the country has enjoyed in transforming this plant into a bioenergy source, however, is due more to a pioneering initiative to create an industrial system for ethanol production than the plant itself.

The system began to be developed in the 1930s when an agronomic development program that made the plant highly efficient was established. Despite these efforts, the agronomic performance of sugarcane is still below that of the other raw materials tested for this purpose over the last few years in different parts of world.

Continue reading

Water management in Brazil is critical, affirm researchers

1By Elton Alisson
Agência FAPESP – Water resource management in Brazil represents a critical problem due to the lack of mechanisms, technologies and, above all, sufficient human resources to adequately manage the country’s hydrographic basins, according to researchers participating in the “Seminar on Water Resources and Agriculture” held on October 2 at FAPESP.
 
The event was part of the activities surrounding the 58th Bunge Foundation Award and 34th Bunge Foundation Youth Award, which this year is exploring the areas of Water Resources and Agriculture and Literary Criticism. In the area of Water Resources and Agriculture, the awards were given to Klaus Reichardt of the Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture (CENA) at the Universidade de São Paulo (USP) and Samuel Beskow of the Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPEL), respectively…. Continue Reading
 
 Source and Photo: Agência FAPESP, November 27, 2013
Labex Korea on Twitter and Facebook

Climate changes will reduce the growing areas in Brazil

ag11By Noêmia Lopes
Agência FAPESP -  The increases in temperatures and changes in the rainfall regime due to global warming that are forecast for several regions of Brazil could significantly impact agriculture in the country. Crops such as beans, soy, wheat, and maize will be particularly affected, according to studies by the Brazil Global Climate Change Research Network (Rede Clima).
By cross-referencing the models of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and Brazilian regional models, researchers at Rede Clima analyzed the expected impact of climate change on national crop-growing areas.
Continue reading

Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Pig and Chicken Supply Chains

39The Poultry Site - The livestock sector is one of the fastest growing sub-sectors of the agricultural economy, and faces several unprecedented and concomitant challenges, according to the FAO report, Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Pig and Chicken Supply Chain. The sector needs to respond to the increasing demands for livestock products that are arising from population growth and changing consumer preferences. It also has to adapt to changes in the economic and policy contexts, and in the natural environment upon which production depends. At the same time, it has to improve its environmental performance and mitigate its impact on climate.
Continue reading

Science points to a new global warming source: the sea

The Korea Herald - Oceans that grow more acidic through Man‘s fossil fuel burning emissions, can amplify global warming by releasing less of a gas that helps shield Earth from radiation, a study said Sunday.

And the authors warned the potentially vast effect they uncovered is not currently factored into climate change projections.

Scientists say that Man’s carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions contribute to planetary warming by letting the Sun‘s heat through the atmosphere but trapping heat energy reflected back from Earth, so creating a greenhouse effect.

Continue reading

Climate changes in Brazil through 2100

By Elton Alisson

28Agência FAPESP – The climate in Brazil in the next few decades should be hotter, with a gradual increase in the average temperature in all regions of the country, varying between 1 °C and 6 °C by 2100 compared with the temperatures at the end of the 20th century.

In the same period, rainfall should also decrease significantly in the majority of the central regions and the north and northeast. In contrast, there will be an increase in precipitation in the south and southeast.

Continue reading

Less science, more pollution

30By Karina Toledo, Caxambu

Agência FAPESP – Universidade de São Paulo researchers have published a detailed map of atmospheric pollution, showing that the countries with the worst air quality indices are precisely those with the fewest scientific production on this topic. The article was published in the August edition of Nature Reviews Cancer.

In the opinion of the article’s author, Lais Fajersztajn, lead researcher of the FAPESP-funded study, the result indicates that science is an important tool for improving atmospheric pollution and must be strengthened in developing countries through international collaboration. “The greater the knowledge, the better it is disseminated, and the more chances there are of dealing with the problem,” she stated.

Click here to access the complete article
Source and Photo: Agência FAPESP, 9th October, 2013
Labex Korea on Twitter and Facebook

KAIST team produces gasoline using E. coli

25The Korea Herald – A group of scientists from the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology has discovered a way to produce gasoline using bacteria for the first time, the school announced.

The finding, published online in the journal Nature on Sunday, could mark a step toward developing new renewable energy.

The research team led by Lee Sang-yup, a professor at the chemical and biomolecular engineering department, used Escherichia coli bacteria that naturally turn sugars into fat to convert fatty acid into oil..>>Continue Reading<<

Labex Korea on Twitter and Facebook

‘Super grass’ could vastly reduce agriculture emissions, say scientists

Brachiaria supergrass is studied at the CIAT's headquarters in ColombiaBy Jonathan Watts
The Guardian - Scientists will call for a major push this week to reduce the amount of greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture through the use of a modified tropical grass.

Brachiaria grasses have been found to inhibit the release of nitrous oxide, which has a more powerful warming effect than carbon dioxide or methane, leading them to be called a super grass.

The authors of several new papers on this grass, which is already used in pastures across much of Latin America, say enhanced strains, wider usage and improved management will provide the most effective means of tackling climate change through agriculture, which accounts for about a third of all greenhouse gases.

Click here to access the complete article
Source and Photo: The Guardian, 17th September, 2013
Labex Korea on Twitter and Facebook