Category Archives: About Brazil

Urban Agriculture – Dream, Reality or Fashion?

Gilberto Silber Schmidt

Research at Embrapa Swine and Poultry

gilberto.schmidt@embrapa.br

 

Urban Agriculture (UAG) it is an activity practiced in the interior or in the periphery of the Urban areas, where a great diversity of food products is cultivated, produced, created, processed and distributed, using human resources, materials and, products and services available around the urban area.

In the early days, UAG began to be designed in small areas, mainly for production for own consumption, which were often accompanied by small sales of surplus, to neighbors and local markets. This practice started to be perpetrated in backyards, terraces, courtyards, or in urban gardens – community spaces or public and (or) non-urbanized private spaces, many of which are still responsible for meeting the demand of Urban Centers, especially in relation to horticultural products.

What are the main factors that are driving UAG growth? In some regions, such as Asia and Europe, the main factor has been competition, which has been restricting the availability of agricultural areas, between the Rural and Urban areas.

How to explain that countries like Brazil, where there is no agriculture area restriction, this type of activity has been growing? Other aspects, such as sustainability; socioeconomic, cultural and ideological factors, fashion, health, practicality, leisure, among others, seem to be the engines of this movement. From a theoretical point of view it is possible to discuss each factor in detail, however, in practice one must be fully aware of the existence of interaction between the factors and, therefore, difficult to segment.

Regardless of its dimensions and purposes, UAG has already become a reality in most Asian countries, probably due to the restriction of cultivated areas and the need for “Food Security”, and they have been growed rapidly in large cities. Studies show that around 800 million urban households produce vegetables, fruits or flowers, in backyards, roofs or even balcony pots across the planet.

In the Asian continent, the perspective is that this model of agriculture will be a trend in large centers in the 21st century, where people have been looking for new values for their lifestyle, emphasizing issues related to health, leisure and the environment and, in many cases, building more sustainable communities.

The urban model of production has assumed different names and forms, depending on different factors and location. In New York (USA) hanging gardens are the big trends and today they reach around 600 buildings. In Montreal (Canada) there are about 9,000 “Urban Gardens”, while in the United Kingdom it reaches 300,000.

In Germany, the movement known as “Little Garden”, planted the seed of UAG and now a days there are about 1 (um) millions of investments spread across the country, creating new business opportunities for conventional agricultural industries. In the USA, agricultural tools, with an elegant and practical design, were created to reinvent agriculture as a form of leisure; consequently, a new type of market appears, with specific demands for agricultural inputs, mainly in relation to seeds / seedlings, organic fertilizers,  and natural products for pest and disease control.

In Brazil, several initiatives have been successful, such as the project established by the Non-Governmental Organization (ONG) “Cidades Sem Fome” (2004), coordinated by the German businessman Hans D. Temp (https:www.//pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organiza%C3%A7%C3% A3o_Cidades_sem_Fome), in Suzano (SP), which consists of solving unoccupied land problems, where garbage and debris were deposited. In these places, community gardens were created, where the most diverse types of vegetables and organic vegetables are growing. Other successful examples can be consulted through the website (https://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agricultura_urbana).

The simple model, which uses the areas available inside or around Urban centers, is already a reality and has provided, in addition to the better use of available areas, usually in the form of local productive arrangements, enabling the generation of employment, income and, adding values to products for local markets..

Agricultural production in homes and apartments is another model that has been growing quickly. Pleasure, practicality and health have apparently been guiding this activity. The expectation is that in the near future the production of food in this type of space will take the place of flowers and foliage in houses and apartments.

What are the limits of the UAG? The restriction on expanding the food production capacity, to meet the demand resulting from population growth, as a result of the reduction of the agricultural area due to competition with the urban environment, could be encouraging countries with a high geographical density to bet on this new model as an instrument to guarantee the “Food Security”, as well as expanding the sustainability of the agricultural process.

Although questionable in relation to several aspects, the development of a sustainable model of production, which can meet the needs of the area for food production, arises through a futuristic concept of converting skyscrapers into virtualized “Productive Units”, which could be considered to have an impact on reducing global warming, improving the urban environment and, at the same time, producing food. It seems to be a dream, but that in some countries, like South Korea, it should become a reality in the medium term time.

In this context, several concepts of sustainability are designed in order to make the system as close what defined as “Zero Energy”, that is, the maximum use of natural resources to feed the system. This futuristic concept has been built and analyzed on all aspects related, in addition to productive issues, with the system’s sustainability.

What are the paths being taken? The use of “circular design” allows maximizing the efficiency of using natural light to maintain the ambient lighting, while the rotating solar panels can provide energy for the heating and cooling of the environment and to keep the electrical-dependent system running.

 The use of glass panels on the external structures of the building facilitates the entry of light and can function as a rainwater collecting system. The varnishing of the glass, externally, with lithium oxide allows the capture of polluting agents, contributing to reduce the environmental impact. In addition, the system allows the collection and subsequent storage of rainwater that slides through the structure, which will be used for consumption and (or) irrigation. The filtration and sterilization of sewage system water allows the use of liquid waste for irrigation of the production system, while solid waste, added to the other organic waste generated in the system, can be used in the biodigestion process for the production of biofuels and organic fertilizers.

Looks it like a dream? No. It is need to imagine the future ways of the agriculture, where environmental, cultural, eating habits, sustainability, area restrictions, etc., will be decisive for determining the paths to be followed.

 

Brazilian researchers develop technique for mass breeding of stingless bees

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERABy Elton Alisson
Agência FAPESP – Stingless bees, such as the jataí (Tetragonisca angustula) and the uruçu (Melipona scutellaris), are well known as important pollinators for several crops such as eggplant, strawberries, tomato and coffee.
One of the main limitations on their use for this purpose, however, is the difficulty of producing colonies in sufficient quantities to meet the demands of farmers, as the majority of these species have small numbers of queens.
However, a new technique that could help overcome this limitation was developed by a group of researchers who reared the queens of one of these species in vitro: Scaptotrigona depilis, commonly known in Brazil as mandaguari…>>Continue Reading<<
 
Source and Photo: FAPESP, January 29th, 2014
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Computer modeling helps to improve the quality and microbiological safety of food

8By Elton Alisson

Agência FAPESP – The foodstuff industries of several countries have utilized a new tool to improve the microbiological safety and quality of their products. Predictive microbiology is a software-based system that uses mathematical models and statistics to predict the behavior of microorganisms in fresh and processed food.

The new method is based on the principle that the ability of bacteria and fungi to multiply in food depends on the properties of the product, such as its composition, acidity, humidity, salt levels and antimicrobials present, in addition to the temperature conditions, relative humidity and atmosphere in which it is maintained. In this manner, the effect of each of these factors can be calculated mathematically using different predictive models… >>Continue Reading<<

Source and Photo: FAPESP, January 22nd, 2014
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The challenges to biofuel expansion

9By Elton Alisson

Agência FAPESP – Recent resolutions by several countries, including the United States, to increase utilization of renewable fuels through 2021 – in addition to the general need to increase energy production and distribution worldwide – should boost global expansion of the biofuels industry in the coming years.

However, the sector must overcome myriad challenges to meet the greater global demand for bioenergy. These challenges include increasing cultivation of the agricultural crops that are utilized to generate biofuels without affecting food production; adapting to the impact of global climate change in agriculture; and competing on unequal footing with fossil fuels, which are strongly subsidized by innumerous countries, including Brazil… >>Continue Reading<<

Source and Photo: FAPESP, January 22nd, 2014
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Brazilian Agriculture

AG_BrasilBy Gilberto Schmidt

Labex Korea – Brazil is one of the largest countries in the world, with an extensive surface of continuous land, a large supply of fresh water, abundant solar energy, and a rich biodiversity. In the past five decades the country has used its abundance and diversity of resources to successfully become a world leader in agricultural production, including food, feed, fiber and renewable energy.

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The success of sugarcane is the fruit of pioneering science and technology, study concludes

canaBy Elton Alisson

Agência FAPESP – Brazil is recognized as the country with the world’s most efficient biofuel production, which is principally based on sugarcane. The success that the country has enjoyed in transforming this plant into a bioenergy source, however, is due more to a pioneering initiative to create an industrial system for ethanol production than the plant itself.

The system began to be developed in the 1930s when an agronomic development program that made the plant highly efficient was established. Despite these efforts, the agronomic performance of sugarcane is still below that of the other raw materials tested for this purpose over the last few years in different parts of world.

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Water management in Brazil is critical, affirm researchers

1By Elton Alisson
Agência FAPESP – Water resource management in Brazil represents a critical problem due to the lack of mechanisms, technologies and, above all, sufficient human resources to adequately manage the country’s hydrographic basins, according to researchers participating in the “Seminar on Water Resources and Agriculture” held on October 2 at FAPESP.
 
The event was part of the activities surrounding the 58th Bunge Foundation Award and 34th Bunge Foundation Youth Award, which this year is exploring the areas of Water Resources and Agriculture and Literary Criticism. In the area of Water Resources and Agriculture, the awards were given to Klaus Reichardt of the Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture (CENA) at the Universidade de São Paulo (USP) and Samuel Beskow of the Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPEL), respectively…. Continue Reading
 
 Source and Photo: Agência FAPESP, November 27, 2013
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Brazil Cotton and Products Update

Brazil_FlagsThe Crop Site – The short 2012/13 cotton crop is constraining Brazil’s 2013/14 cotton exports, estimated at 2.1 million bales. The 2013/14 cotton production area estimate is maintained at 1.1 million hectares. With superior seed technology and improved pesticide controls, producers and analysts are expecting robust yields but will also incur significantly higher production costs, due to the additional pesticide applications to combat the Helicoverpa corn earworm.

Click here to access the complete article at The Crop Site

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Brazilian universities make scientific production available on the internet

2By Elton Alisson
Agência FAPESP – The scientific production of the São Paulo universities USP, Unicamp and Unesp can be found and accessed freely through a single portal on the internet. This portal is the Council of São Paulo University Dean’s Scientific Production Repository, launched during the opening session of the 4th Annual Luso-Brazilian Conference on Open Access (Confoa) on October 6.
 
Created and funded by FAPESP, several of the portal’s objectives are to collect, preserve and allow open, public and integrated access to the scientific production of researchers from the three São Paulo state universities. These universities lead the publication of scientific articles in the country according to the latest edition of SIR World Report, released in July by Scimago Lab… Continue Reading
 
Source and Photo: Agência FAPESP, November 27, 2013
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Brazil Needs to Reduce Transport Costs to be Competitive

Brazil_FlagsBy Chris Harris
The Poultry Site – Speaking at the HGCA Grain Market Outlook conference in London last week, Chris Gadd, grain analyst with Macquarie Securities said that in the 2013/14 season Brazil will have increased production to more than 87 million tonnes of soybeans – a rise from 81.6 million tonnes last year.

Globally, this year the markets have been recovering from poor soy, sun flower seed and rape production in 2012 and in the US there is a predicted shortfall in production, although there is an improvement in ending stocks in the US as yields are improving.

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