David Pimentel and Tad Patzek
SpringerLink – In this analysis, the most recent scientific data for corn, switchgrass, and wood, for fermentation/distillation were used. All current fossil energy inputs used in corn production and for the fermentation/distillation were included to determine the entire energy cost of ethanol production. Additional costs to consumers include federal and state subsidies, plus costs associated with environmental pollution and/or degradation that occur during the entire production process. In addition, an investigation was made concerning the conversion of soybeans into biodiesel fuel.